Malay (Bahasa Melaysia)

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Malay (Bahasa Melaysia)

Post by evergreen on Mon Jan 03, 2011 7:07 am

Malay (Bahasa Melaysia)

Malay is an Austronesian language spoken in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore,
Brunei and Thailand. The total number of speakers of Standard Malay is about
18 million. There are also about 170 million people who speak Indonesian, which
is a form of Malay.

The earliest known inscriptions in Malay were found in southern Sumatra
and on the island of Bangka and date from 683-6 AD. They were written
in an Indian script during the time of the kingdom of Srivijaya.

When Islam arrived in southeast Asia during the 14th century, the
Arabic script was adapted to write the Malay language.
In the 17th century, under influence from the Dutch and British, the
Arabic script was replaced by the Latin alphabet.

Arabic alphabet for Malay (Jawi)


Latin alphabet for Malay A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z
a be ce de e ef ge ha i
je ke el em en o pe ki er
es te u fe we iks ye zet

Malay pronunciation

Sample text in Malay (Latin alphabet)

Semua manusia dilahirkan bebas dan samarata dari segi kemuliaan dan hak-hak.
Mereka mempunyai pemikiran dan perasaan hati dan hendaklah bertindak di antara
satu sama lain dengan semangat persaudaraan.

Sample text in Malay (Jawi alphabet)


All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They
are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another
in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Longer sample text (Tower of Babel)

Useful phrases in Malay

Malay language courses, etc.


Online Malay lessons

Online Malay dictionaries

Free Jawi fonts and software

Related languages







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Re: Malay (Bahasa Melaysia)

Post by evergreen on Mon Jan 03, 2011 7:10 am

Malay language

Malay is a major language of the Austronesian family. Standardized varieties of Malay are the official language of Malaysia (Malaysian), Indonesia (Indonesian) and Brunei. Malay is one of four official languages of Singapore, and is a working language of East Timor, a consequence of over twenty years of Indonesian administration. It is spoken natively by 40 million people[5] across the Malacca Strait, including the coasts of the Malay Peninsula of Malaysia and southern Thailand, Riau province, the eastern coast of Sumatra, and the Riau Islands in Indonesia, as has been established as a native language of Jakarta and of part of western coastal Sarawak and Kalimantan in Borneo. As a second language, Indonesian is spoken by an estimated 140 million.[6]
In Malaysia, the standard language is called Bahasa Malaysia "Malaysian language". In Singapore, Brunei, southern Thailand, and the southern Philippines it is called Bahasa Melayu "Malay language", and in Indonesia it is generally called Bahasa Indonesia, "Indonesian language", though Bahasa Nasional "National Language" and Bahasa Persatuan/Pemersatu
"Unifying Language" are also heard. However, in areas of Sumatra and
Riau where the language is indigenous, Indonesians refer to it as Bahasa Melayu.

  • /p/, /t/, /k/ are unaspirated, as in the Romance languages, or as in English spy, sty, sky. In final position, they are unreleased [p̚, t̪̚, ʔ̚], with final k being a glottal stop (see next). /b, d/ are also unreleased, and therefore devoiced, [p̚, t̚]. There is no liaison: they remain unreleased even when followed by a vowel, as in kulit ubi "potato skins", though they are pronounced as a normal medial consonant when followed by a suffix.
  • In some words, glottal stop /ʔ/ can occur at the end of a word, where it is written ‹k›: baik, bapak. Only a few words have this sound in the middle, e.g. bakso (meatballs). It may be represented by an apostrophe in Arabic derived words such as Al Qur'an.
  • /t/ is dental, as in French, whereas /d/ is alveolar as in English.
  • /tʃ, dʒ/ are pronounced with the tip of the tongue further forward than in English (alveolar), and without the lip rounding of English.
  • /h/ clearly pronounced between like vowels, as in Pahang. Elsewhere it is a very light sound, and is frequently silent, as in hutan ~ utan "forest", sahut ~ saut "answer". (It is not, however, dropped when initial from Arabic loans such as hakim "judge".) In dialects which retain final /h/, it may engage in liaison, as in sudah itu [suda hitu] "after that".
  • /r/ varies significantly across dialects. Its position relative to schwa is ambiguous: kertas "paper" may be pronounced [krəˈtas] or [kərəˈtas].

Orthographic Note:

  • The sequence /ŋɡ/ and /ŋk/ are written ‹ngg›, ‹ngk›.

Phonemes which occur only in Arabic loans may be pronounced
distinctly by speakers who know Arabic. Otherwise they tend to be
substituted for with native sounds.


Malay originally had four vowels, but in many dialects today has six. /ə/ is often epenthetic, but cannot be predicted in some words, such as enam "six". /e, o/ are distinguished in English loan words, and also in many Indonesian dialects. In some dialects, /ai, au/ are pronounced as /e, o/.



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عدد المساهمات : 1585
النقاط : 33594
التقييم : 34
تاريخ التسجيل : 2010-02-03

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