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Muslim Scientists and Scholars

Post by 3loomi on Sat Oct 16, 2010 9:02 pm

Muslim scientists and scholars have contributed immensely to humanknowledge especially in the period between 8th and 14th century CE. However, theircontributions have been largely ignored, forgotten or have gone un-acknowledged. On thissite you can read fascinating accounts of some of the most talented Muslim scholars inhistory whose contributions have left lasting marks in the annals of science, astronomy,medicine, surgery, engineering and philosophy


http://www.ummah.net/history/scholars/index.html


Muslim scientists and scholars have contributed immensely to human knowledge especially in the period between 8th and 14th
century CE. However, their contributions have been largely ignored, forgotten or have gone un-acknowledged.
Therefore, I tried to put thier names with their expertise here, so that
if we can remmember them for our knowledge. Interesting to read...

---------------
- Jabir Ibn Haiyan died 803 (father of chemistry)
- Mohammad Bin Musa al-Khawarizmi died 840 (mathematician, astronomer and geographer)
- Yaqub Ibn Ishaq al-Kindi died 800 (philosopher, mathematician, physicist)
- Thabit Ibn Qurra died died 873 (mathematician and astronomy)
- Ali Ibn Rabban al-Tabari died 870 (extremely successful physician)
- Abu Abdullah al-Battani died 929 (famous astronomer, mathematician and astrologer)
- Al-Farghani 860 (one of the most distinguished astronomers)
- Mohammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi died 930 (Hakim, an alchemist and a philosopher)
- Abu al-Nasr al-Farabi died 950 (philosopher and scientist, an expert in different languages)
- Abul Hasan Ali al-Masu'di died 957 (An expert geographer, a physicist and historian)
- Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi died 1013 (surgery expert)
- Abul Wafa Muhammad al-Buzjani died 997 (his contribution lies in
several branches of mathematics, especially geometry and trigonometry)
- Abu Ali Hasan Ibn al-Haitham died 1040 ( most eminent physicists, whose contributions to optics and the scientific methods)
- Abu al-Hasan al-Mawardi died 1058 (an expert in Political Science)
- Abu Raihan al-Biruni died 1048 (versatile scholar and scientist, who
had equal facility in physics, metaphysics, mathematics, geography and
history)
- Ibn Sina died 1037 (most famous physician, philosopher, encyclopaedist, mathematician and astronomer of his time)
- Omar al-Khayyam died 1123 (Persian mathematician, astronomer, philosopher, physician and poet)
- Abu Hamid al-Ghazali died 1128 (major contribution lies in religion, philosophy and sufism)
- Abu Marwan Ibn Zuhr died 1161 (greatest physicians and clinicians of the Muslim golden era)
- Al-Idrisi died 1166 (his major contribution lies in medicinal plants)
- Ibn Rushd died 1198 ( made remarkable contributions, in philosophy, logic, medicine, music and jurisprudence)
- Ibn al-Baitar died 1248 (greatest botanist and pharmacist)
- Nasir al-Din al-Tusi died 1274 (greatest scientists, philosaphers, mathematicians, astronomers, theologians and physicians)
- Jalal al-Din Rumi died 1273 (major contribution lies in Islamic philosophy)
- Ibn al-Nafis died 1288 (major contribution lies in medicine)
- Ibn Khaldun died 1332 (chief contribution lies in philosophy of history and sociology)
- Ibn Sina - doctor of doctors
- El Zahrawi - father of surgery
- Ibn Battuta - the great traveller

3loomi

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Re: Muslim Scientists and Scholars

Post by discovery on Thu Aug 18, 2011 7:24 am

The Great Muslim Scientists of All Time

Here is a little intro about them and their work to the
world of science.All the scientists are before 14th century ..,When you the
Europe was called a Dark continent ,Muslims Scientists Were ruling in all over
the world!
I don't know what happened now But anyways Don't Forget the Past=)
Better be Proud!

Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī


Consequently he is considered to be the father of algebra,[6] a title he shares
with Diophantus. Latin translations of his Arithmetic, on the Indian numerals,
introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world in the
12th century.[5] He revised and updated Ptolemy's Geography as well as writing
several works on astronomy and astrology.

His contributions not only made a great impact on mathematics, but on language
as well. The word algebra is derived from al-jabr, one of the two operations
used to solve quadratic equations, as described in his book.

For complete intro:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Khwarizmi


Avicenna

Avicenna was a Persian polymath and the foremost physician and Islamic
philosopher of his time. He was also an astronomer, chemist, Hafiz, logician,
mathematician, physicist, poet, psychologist, scientist, Sheikh, soldier,
statesman and theologian.

His most famous works are The Book of Healing, a vast philosophical and
scientific encyclopaedia, and The Canon of Medicine, which was a standard
medical text at many Islamic and European universities up until the early 19th
century .
Ibn Sīnā is regarded as a father of early modern medicine, and
clinical pharmacology particularly for his introduction of systematic
experimentation and quantification into the study of physiology,] his discovery
of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, the introduction of quarantine
to limit the spread of contagious diseases, the introduction of experimental
medicine, evidence-based medicine, clinical trials, randomized controlled
trials, efficacy tests, clinical pharmacology, neuropsychiatry, risk factor
analysis, and the idea of a syndrome,[30] and the importance of dietetics and
the influence of climate and environment on health.
He is also considered the father of the fundamental concept of momentum in
physics, and regarded as a pioneer of aromatherapy.


George Sarton,, the father of the history of science, wrote in the Introduction
to the History of Science:

"One of the most famous exponents of Muslim universalism and an eminent
figure in Islamic learning was Ibn Sina, known in the West as Avicenna
(981-1037). For a thousand years he has retained his original renown as one of
the greatest thinkers and medical scholars in history. His most important
medical works are the Qanun (Canon) and a treatise on Cardiac drugs. The 'Qanun
fi-l-Tibb' is an immense encyclopedia of medicine. It contains some of the most
illuminating thoughts pertaining to distinction of mediastinitis from pleurisy;
contagious nature of phthisis; distribution of diseases by water and soil;
careful description of skin troubles; of sexual diseases and perversions; of
nervous ailments.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avicenna

Geber

He is "considered by many to be the father of chemistry.
abir Ibn Hayyan is widely credited with the introduction of the experimental
method in alchemy, and with the invention of numerous important processes still
used in modern chemistry today, such as the syntheses of hydrochloric and
nitric acids, distillation, and crystallisation. His original works are highly
esoteric and probably coded, though nobody today knows what the code is. On the
surface, his alchemical career revolved around an elaborate chemical numerology
based on consonants in the Arabic names of substances and the concept of
takwin, the artificial creation of life in the alchemical laboratory. Research
has also established that oldest text of Jabiran corpus must have originated in
the scientific culture of northeastern Persia. This thesis is supported by the
Persian language and Middle Persian terms used in the technical vocabulary.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geber

Al-Jazari
The most significant aspect of al-Jazari's machines are the mechanisms, components,
ideas, methods and design features which they employ.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Jazari

Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī
He was involved in the measurement of the diameter of the Earth together with a
team of scientists under the patronage of al-Ma'mūn in Baghdad.
The Alfraganus crater on the Moon was named after him.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Farghani

Muhammad ibn Zakarīya Rāzi
Razi made fundamental and enduring contributions to the fields of medicine,
alchemy, and philosophy, recorded in over 184 books and articles in various
fields of science. He was well-versed in Persian, Greek and Indian medical
knowledge and made numerous advances in medicine through own observations and
discoveries.] He was an early proponent of experimental medicine and is
considered the father of pediatrics
. He was also a pioneer of
neurosurgery and ophthalmology.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rhazes

Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
physicist, an anthropologist and psychologist, an astronomer, a chemist, a
critic of alchemy and astrology, an encyclopedist and historian, a geographer
and traveller, a geodesist and geologist, a mathematician, a pharmacist and
physician, an Islamic philosopher and Shia theologian, and a scholar and
teacher, and he contributed greatly to all of these fields.

He was the first scholar to study India and the Brahminical tradition, and has
been described as the father of Indology, the father of geodesy, and
"the first anthropologist". He was also one of the earliest leading
exponents of the experimental scientific method, and was responsible for
introducing the experimental method into mechanics, the first to conduct
elaborate experiments related to astronomical phenomena, and a pioneer of
experimental psychology.

George Sarton, the father of the history of science, described Biruni as
"One of the very greatest scientists of Islam, and, all considered, one of
the greatest of all times.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biruni


Al-Khazini
Robert E. Hall wrote the following on al-Khazini:

"His hydrostatic balance can leave no doubt that as a maker of scientific
instruments he is among the greatest of any time."

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Khazini


Ibn al-Haytham
HE made significant contributions to the principles of optics, as well as to
anatomy, astronomy, engineering, mathematics, medicine, ophthalmology,
philosophy, physics, psychology, visual perception, and to science in general
with his introduction of the scientific method.

Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the "father of modern optics" for
his influential Book of Optics, which correctly explained and proved the modern
intromission theory of vision, and for his experiments on optics, including
experiments on lenses, mirrors, refraction, reflection, and the dispersion of
light into its constituent colours. He studied binocular vision and the moon
illusion, described the finite speed[] and rectilinear propagation of light and
and argued that rays of light are streams of corpuscular energy
particles[16]travelling in straight lines.] Due to his formulation of a modern
quantitative, empirical and experimental approach to physics and science, he is
considered the pioneer of the modern scientific method and the originator of
experimental science and experimental physics, and some have described him as
the "first scientist" for these reasons.

He is also considered by some to be the founder of experimental psychology
for his experimental approach to the psychology of visual perception and
optical illusions, and a pioneer of the philosophical field of phenomenology.

Among his other achievements, Ibn al-Haytham gave the first clear
description and correct analysis of the camera obscura, discovered Fermat's
principle of least time and the concept of inertia
(Newton's first law of
motion), discovered that the heavenly bodies were accountable to the laws of
physics
, presented a critique and reform of Ptolemaic astronomy, first
stated Wilson's theorem in number theory, formulated and solved Alhazen's
problem geometrically using early ideas related to calculus and mathematical
induction,and in his optical research laid the foundations for the later
development of telescopic astronomy,[34] as well as for the microscope and the
use of optical aids in Renaissance art
.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_al-Haytham

____________________________________________________

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Re: Muslim Scientists and Scholars

Post by discovery on Thu Aug 18, 2011 7:24 am

Al-Kindi
also known by the Latinized version of his name Alkindus to the West, was an
Arabpolymath: a philosopher, scientist, astrologer, astronomer, cosmologist,
chemist, logician, mathematician, musician, physician, physicist, psychologist,
and meteorologist.
In the field of mathematics, al-Kindi played an important role in introducing
Indian numerals to the Islamic and Christian world. He was a pioneer in
cryptanalysis and cryptology, and devised several new methods of breaking
ciphers, including the frequency analysis method.] Using his mathematical and
medical expertise, he was able to develop a scale that would allow doctors to
quantify the potency of their medication.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Kindi

Ibn Sahl

Abu Sa`d al-`Ala' ibn Sahl) (c. 940-1000) was an Arabian mathematician,
physicist and optics engineer associated with the Abbasid court of Baghdad.
About 984 he wrote a treatise On Burning Mirrors and Lenses in which he set out
his understanding of how curved mirrors and lenses bend and focus light. Ibn
Sahl is credited with first discovering the law of refraction, usually called
Snell's law.[1][2] He used the law of refraction to work out the shapes of
lenses that focus light with no geometric aberrations, known as anaclastic
lenses.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ibn_Sahl

Al-Ghazali
known as Algazel to the western medieval world, was born and died in Tus, in
the Khorasan province of Persia (modern day Iran). He was a Muslim theologian,
jurist, philosopher, physician, psychologist and mystic of Persian origin], and
remains one of the most celebrated scholars in the history of Sufi Islamic
thought. He is considered a pioneer of the methods of doubt and skepticism, and
in one of his major works, The Incoherence of the Philosophers, he changed the
course of early Islamic philosophy, shifting it away from the influence of
ancient Greek and Hellenistic philosophy, and towards cause-and-effect that
were determined by God or intermediate angels.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Ghazali

Im Tired and rest of the scientists you can go through with this list if you
are interested.lol
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muslim_scientists

I am tired now..lol If anyone else can do it then go ahead=)








And here is the complete list.

Astronomers and Astrophysicists

* Muhammad
* Muhammad Ahmad Khan Minhas
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Yaqūb ibn Tāriq
* Ibrahim al-Fazari
* Muhammad al-Fazari
* Mashallah
* Naubakht
* Al-Khwarizmi, also a mathematician
* Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
* Al-Farghani
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit)
o Sinan ibn Thabit
o Ibrahim ibn Sinan
* Al-Majriti
* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī
(Albatenius)
* Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
* Abd Al-Rahman Al Sufi
* Abu Sa'id Gorgani
* Kushyar ibn Labban
* Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
* Al-Mahani
* Al-Marwazi
* Al-Nayrizi
* Al-Saghani
* Al-Farghani
* Abu Nasr Mansur
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi)
* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
* Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī
* Ibn Yunus
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen)
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
* Omar Khayyám
* Al-Khazini
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Ibn Tufail (Abubacer)
* Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (Alpetragius)
* Averroes
* Al-Jazari
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* Anvari
* Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
* Ibn al-Shatir
* Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
* Jamshīd al-Kāshī
* Ulugh Beg, also a mathematician
* Taqi al-Din, Ottoman astronomer
* Ahmad Nahavandi
* Haly Abenragel
* Ghallia Kaouk
* Abolfadl Harawi
* Kerim Kerimov, a founder of Soviet space program, a lead architect behind
first human spaceflight (Vostok 1), and the lead architect of the first space
stations (Salyut and Mir)[1][2]
* Farouk El-Baz, a NASA scientist involved in the first Moon landings with the
Apollo program[3]
* Abdul Kalam
* Sultan bin Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud
* Muhammed Faris
* Abdul Ahad Mohmand
* Talgat Musabayev
* Anousheh Ansari
* Amir Ansari
* Essam Heggy, a planetary scientist involved in the NASA Mars Exploration
Program[4]
* Ahmed Salem
* Alaa Ibrahim
* Mohamed Sultan
* Ahmed Noor
* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, pioneer of biomedical research in space[5][6]

[edit] Chemists and Alchemists

Further information: Alchemy (Islam)

* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Jabir Ibn Hayyan (Geber), father of chemistry[7][8][9]
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman)
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
* Al-Majriti
* Ibn Miskawayh
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Al-Khazini
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Hasan al-Rammah
* Ibn Khaldun
* Sake Dean Mahomet
* Salimuzzaman Siddiqui
* Al Khawazimi Father of Al-Gabra, (Mathematics)
* Ahmed H. Zewail, Nobel Prize in Chemistry, 1999[10]
* Ali Eftekhari

____________________________________________________

discovery

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Re: Muslim Scientists and Scholars

Post by discovery on Thu Aug 18, 2011 7:25 am

[edit] Computer Scientists

* Lotfi Asker Zadeh, Iranian computer scientist; founder of fuzzy logic and
fuzzy set theory[11][12]
* Jawed Karim, Bangladeshi American software engineer; lead architect of PayPal
and co-founder of YouTube[13]
* Pierre Omidyar, Iranian American entrepreneur; founder of eBay[14]

[edit] Economists and Social Scientists

Further information: Islamic sociology, Early Muslim sociology, and Islamic
economics in the world
See also: List of Muslim historians and Historiography of early Islam

* Muhammad (570-632), discussed corporate social responsibility[15]
* Abu Hanifa an-Nu‘man (699-767), economist
* Abu Yusuf (731-798), economist
* Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931), economist
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius) (873–950), economist
* Al-Saghani (d. 990), one of the earliest historians of science[16]
* Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir (Qabus) (d. 1012), economist
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973-1048), considered the
"first anthropologist"[17] and father of Indology[18]
* Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980–1037), economist
* Ibn Miskawayh (b. 1030), economist
* Al-Ghazali (Algazel) (1058–1111), economist
* Al-Mawardi (1075–1158), economist
* Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī (Tusi) (1201-1274), economist
* Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), sociologist
* Ibn Taymiyyah (1263–1328), economist
* Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), forerunner of social sciences[19] such as
demography,[20] cultural history,[21] historiography,[22] philosophy of
history,[23] sociology[20][23] and economics[24][25]
* Al-Maqrizi (1364-1442), economist
* Akhtar Hameed Khan, Pakistani social scientist; pioneer of microcredit
* Mahbub ul Haq, Pakistani economist; developer of Human Development Index and
founder of Human Development Report[26][27]
* Muhammad Yunus, Bangladeshi economist; father of microcredit and
microfinance[28][29]

____________________________________________________

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Re: Muslim Scientists and Scholars

Post by discovery on Thu Aug 18, 2011 7:26 am

[edit] Geographers and Earth Scientists

Further information: Muslim Agricultural Revolution

* Muhammad, discussed environmental philosophy[30]
* Al-Masudi, the "Herodotus of the Arabs", and pioneer of historical
geography[31]
* Al-Kindi, pioneer of environmental science[32]
* Qusta ibn Luqa
* Ibn Al-Jazzar
* Al-Tamimi
* Al-Masihi
* Avicenna
* Ali ibn Ridwan
* Muhammad al-Idrisi, also a cartographer
* Ahmad ibn Fadlan
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, father of geodesy,[17][33]
considered the first geologist and "first anthropologist"[17]
* Avicenna
* Ibn Jumay
* Abd-el-latif
* Averroes
* Ibn al-Nafis
* Ibn al-Quff
* Ibn Battuta
* Ibn Khaldun
* Piri Reis
* Evliya Çelebi
* Zaghloul El-Naggar

[edit] Mathematicians

Further information: Islamic mathematics: Biographies

* Al-Hajjāj ibn Yūsuf ibn Matar
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī (Algorismi) - father of
algebra[34] and algorithms[35]
* Al-Abbās ibn Said al-Jawharī
* 'Abd al-Hamīd ibn Turk
* Hunayn ibn Ishaq
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus)
* Ja'far ibn Muhammad Abu Ma'shar al-Balkhi (Albumasar)
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa)
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Al-Mahani
* Ahmed ibn Yusuf
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit)
o Sinan ibn Thabit
o Ibrahim ibn Sinan
* Al-Majriti
* Muhammad ibn Jābir al-Harrānī al-Battānī
(Albatenius)
* Al-Farabi (Abunaser)
* Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam
* Al-Nayrizi
* Abū Ja'far al-Khāzin
* Brethren of Purity
* Abu'l-Hasan al-Uqlidisi
* Al-Saghani
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī
* Abu-Mahmud al-Khujandi
* Abū al-Wafā' al-Būzjānī
* Ibn Sahl
* Al-Sijzi
* Ibn Yunus
* Abu Nasr Mansur
* Kushyar ibn Labban
* Al-Karaji
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen/Alhazen)
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna
* Ibn Tahir al-Baghdadi
* Al-Nasawi
* Al-Jayyani
* Abū Ishāq Ibrāhīm al-Zarqālī (Arzachel)
* Al-Mu'taman ibn Hud
* Omar Khayyám
* Al-Khazini
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Al-Ghazali (Algazel)
* Al-Samawal
* Averroes
* Sharaf al-Dīn al-Tūsī
* Ibn Mun`im
* Al-Marrakushi
* Ibn al-Banna'
* Mo'ayyeduddin Urdi
* Nasir al-Din al-Tusi, 13th century Persian mathematician and philosopher
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
* Mu
yi al-Dīn
al-Maghribī
* Shams al-Dīn al-Samarqandī
* Al-Khalili
* Ibn al-Shatir
* Qā
ī Zāda
al-Rūmī
* Jamshīd al-Kāshī
* Ulugh Beg
* Taqi al-Din
* Muhammad Baqir Yazdi
* Ibn Baso
* Abū al-Hasan ibn Alī al-Qalasādī (1412-1482), pioneer of
symbolic algebra[36]
* Lotfi Asker Zadeh, Iranian computer scientist; founder of Fuzzy Mathematics
and fuzzy set theory[11][12]
* Cumrun Vafa
* Jeffrey Lang Professor at the University of Kansas converted to Islam from
atheism
* Mostafa Mosharafa

[edit] Neuroscientists and Psychologists

Further information: Islamic psychological thought

* Muhammad, discussed mental health[37]
* Ibn Sirin (654–728), author of work on dreams and dream interpretation[38]
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus), pioneer of psychotherapy and music therapy[39]
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of psychiatry, clinical psychiatry and
clinical psychology[40]
* Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi, pioneer of mental health,[37] medical psychology,
cognitive psychology, cognitive therapy, psychophysiology and psychosomatic
medicine[41]
* Najab ud-din Muhammad, pioneer of mental disorder classification[42]
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius), pioneer of social psychology and consciousness
studies[43]
* Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (Haly Abbas), pioneer of neuroanatomy, neurobiology
and neurophysiology[43]
* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), pioneer of neurosurgery[44]
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen), founder of experimental psychology, psychophysics,
phenomenology and visual perception[45]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, pioneer of reaction time[46]
* Avicenna (Ibn Sina), pioneer of physiological psychology,[42]
neuropsychiatry,[47] thought experiment, self-awareness and
self-consciousness[48]
* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar), pioneer of neurology and neuropharmacology[44]
* Averroes, pioneer of Parkinson's disease[44]
* Ibn Tufail, pioneer of tabula rasa and nature versus nurture[49]

[edit] Physicians and Surgeons

Main article: Muslim doctors
Further information: Islamic medicine

* Muhammad, discussed contagion[50][51] and early Islamic medical
treatments[52]
* Khalid ibn Yazid (Calid)
* Jafar al-Sadiq
* Shapur ibn Sahl (d. 869), pioneer of pharmacy and pharmacopoeia[53]
* Al-Kindi (Alkindus) (801-873), pioneer of pharmacology[54]
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman) (810-887)
* Al-Jahiz, pioneer of natural selection
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari, pioneer of medical encyclopedia[40]
* Ahmed ibn Sahl al-Balkhi
* Ishaq bin Ali al-Rahwi (854–931), pioneer of peer review and medical peer
review[55]
* Al-Farabi (Alpharabius)
* Abul Hasan al-Tabari - physician
* Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari - physician
* Ibn Al-Jazzar
* Ali ibn Abbas al-Majusi (d. 994), pioneer of obstetrics and perinatology[56]
* Abu Gaafar Amed ibn Ibrahim ibn abi Halid al-Gazzar (10th century), pioneer
of dental restoration[57]
* Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis) - father of modern surgery, and pioneer
of neurosurgery,[44] craniotomy,[56] hematology[58] and dental surgery[59]
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), pioneer of eye surgery, visual system[60] and
visual perception[61]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī
* Avicenna (Ibn Sina) (980-1037) - father of modern medicine,[62] founder of
Unani medicine,[58] pioneer of experimental medicine, evidence-based medicine,
pharmaceutical sciences, clinical pharmacology,[63] aromatherapy,[64] pulsology
and sphygmology,[65] and also a philosopher
* Ibn Miskawayh
* Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) - father of experimental surgery,[66] and pioneer of
experimental anatomy, experimental physiology, human dissection, autopsy[67]
and tracheotomy[68]
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace)
* Ibn Tufail (Abubacer)
* Averroes
* Ibn al-Baitar
* Nasir al-Din Tusi
* Ibn al-Nafis (1213-1288), father of circulatory physiology, pioneer of
circulatory anatomy,[69] and founder of Nafisian anatomy, physiology,[70]
pulsology and sphygmology[71]
* Ibn al-Quff (1233-1305), pioneer of modern embryology[56]
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī
* Ibn Khatima (14th century), pioneer of bacteriology and microbiology[72]
* Ibn al-Khatib (1313-1374)
* Mansur ibn Ilyas
* Saghir Akhtar - pharmacist
* Toffy Musivand
* Samuel Rahbar
* Muhammad B. Yunus, the "father of our modern view of
fibromyalgia"[73]
* Sheikh Muszaphar Shukor, pioneer of biomedical research in space[5][6]

[edit] Physicists

Further information: Islamic physics

* Muhammad explained creation of the universe
* Jafar al-Sadiq, 8th century
* Banū Mūsā (Ben Mousa), 9th century
o Ja'far Muhammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Ahmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
o Al-Hasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir
* Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firman), 9th century
* Thābit ibn Qurra (Thebit), 9th century
* Al-Saghani, 10th century
* Abū Sahl al-Qūhī (Kuhi), 10th century
* Ibn Sahl, 10th century
* Ibn Yunus, 10th century
* Al-Karaji, 10th century
* Ibn al-Haytham (Alhacen), 11th century Iraqi scientist, father of optics,[74]
pioneer of scientific method[75] and experimental physics,[76] considered the
"first scientist"[77]
* Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, 11th century, pioneer of
experimental mechanics[78]
* Avicenna, 11th century
* Al-Khazini, 12th century
* Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), 12th century
* Hibat Allah Abu'l-Barakat al-Baghdaadi (Nathanel), 12th century
* Averroes, 12th century Andalusian mathematician, philosopher and medical
expert
* Al-Jazari, 13th century civil engineer, father of robotics,[9] father of
modern engineering[79]
* Nasir al-Din Tusi, 13th century
* Qutb al-Din al-Shirazi, 13th century
* Kamāl al-Dīn al-Fārisī, 13th century
* Hasan al-Rammah, 13th century
* Ibn al-Shatir, 14th century
* Taqi al-Din, 16th century
* Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi, 17th century
* Lagari Hasan Çelebi, 17th century
* Sake Dean Mahomet, 18th century
* Tipu Sultan, 18th century Indian mechanician
* Fazlur Khan, 20th century Bangladeshi mechanician
* Mahmoud Hessaby, 20th century Iranian physicist
* Ali Javan, 20th century Iranian physicist
* Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie, 20th century Indonesian aerospace engineer and
president
* Abdul Qadeer Khan, Pakistani nuclear physicist
* Abdus Salam, Pakistani physicist; Nobel Prize in Physics 1977[80]
* Abdul Kalam, Indian nuclear physicist
* Mehran Kardar, Iranian theoretical physicist
* Cumrun Vafa, Iranian mathematical physicist
* Nima Arkani-Hamed, American-born Iranian physicist
* Abdel Nasser Tawfik, Egyptian-born German Particle Physisist





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